With regards to cases in which the criminal group engages in all of the phases of unlawful activity, internal tasks are managed by assigning different jobs to individuals specialized in a specific type of work. In this sense, they utilize the following roles:
– The “recruiter” is responsible for recruiting victims in their home countries, and will normally be of their same nationality.
– The “smuggler” is responsible for accompanying victims on the journey to their destination country, and for facilitating their passage through border posts.
– Finally, the “controller” is responsible for monitoring and controlling the victims wherever they are exploited, achieving such by imposing coercion and threat.
All this work occurs under the coordination of a skilled leader of the criminal ring. Sometimes, the tasks relating to the recruitment, transfer and exploitation of victims are performed by different criminal groups or by groups that maintain some level of contact and coordination with each other.
In many cases, organized groups dedicated to this criminal activity have infrastructure that spans victims’ countries of origin, transit and destination. Women of the same nationality as the victims frequently belong to the criminal group and are put in a position of control of the victims. In some cases, they are or were previously exploited.